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How does the nervous system produce output signals necessary for stepping, or reaching? There is a huge body of evidence that movement is not dependent on direct wiring from brain to muscle. Patterned or rhythmic output in the extremities (extensor/flexor motions in the arm, for example, or stepping) is produced within the spinal cord, which picks up cues from sensory information. The spinal cord embodies what scientists call central pattern generators (CPGs), neural networks that produce rhythmic output to drive a repetitive motor activity. Interneurons are a type of microcircuit that coordinates the rhythm and pattern of the CPG. Read More